After the RAF raid on Berlin in 1940, Adolf Hitler
ordered the construction of three DCA
massive towers to defend the capital from air attack. These towers were supported by a FuSE 65 and FuMG 39T fire-control radar installation that was on a retractable platform (the platform could be retracted behind a thick concrete wall and steel dome to protect it during an air raid).
These structures, whose appearance Hitler himself defined by submitting his own sketches, were built within six months. Such was the priority of the project that the transport schedule of the Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesselschaft
(German national railroad company) was altered to allow the concrete, steel and beams to be transported to the construction sites.
With concrete walls 3.5 m thick, the towers of Flak
were considered invulnerable to the bombs usually used by Allied bombers, but it's unlikely they could have withstood the Grand Slam
which could penetrate thicker reinforced concrete structures. It seems that aircraft generally avoided the Flak
The towers could maintain a rate of fire of 8,000 rounds per minute, with a maximum range of 14 km over 360°. However, only the 128mm guns had sufficient range to defend the towers against the heavy bombers of the Royal Air Force Bomber Command.
Photo credit Bwag